IMR Press / FBL / Volume 16 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.2741/3816

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in cerebrovascular disease
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1 Vascular Biology and Immunopharmacology Group, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia

Academic Editors: Karen Andrews, Jaye Dusting

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2011, 16(5), 1733–1745; https://doi.org/10.2741/3816
Published: 1 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The endothelium in cardiovascular disease)
Abstract

Maintenance of vascular tone by the endothelium involves the production of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). NO, produced from endothelial nitric oxide synthase diffuses to the underlying smooth muscle to stimulate soluble guanylate cyclase, resulting in increased cyclic GMP levels, and subsequent smooth muscle relaxation and blood vessel dilatation. Endothelial dysfunction, manifested as diminished NO bioavailability, is a common feature of a number of vascular-related diseases.. Oxidative stress can be defined as an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and/or impaired ROS metabolism that favours them being present in excess of physiological levels. Oxidative stress can negatively impact many cell types, including in the vasculature. There is now a wealth of evidence suggesting that oxidative stress is a major cause of endothelial dysfunction in the cerebral circulation. This review will summarize disease models in which both oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction occur in the cerebral circulation, namely hypertension involving angiotensin II (Ang II), diabetes, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Molecular mechanisms by which oxidative stress occurs, (eg increased NADPH-oxidase activity) will also be discussed.

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