Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
In vitro generation of immune cells from pluripotent stem cells
Academic Editor: Hiroshi Wakao
Stem cell transplant recipients and acquired or inherited immune-deficiency patients could benefit from the infusion of B, T and/or NK cells. These lymphoid cells can be generated in vitro from bone marrow derived CD34+CD45+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). The number of cells that can be obtained in this way is limited especially in the adult. An alternative source may therefore constitute human pluripotent stem cells (PSC) such as embryonic (hESC) or induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). Here, we focus on present knowledge on the generation of lymphoid cells from hESC. The two main obstacles for the generation of clinically relevant immune cells are the failure to generate from hESC long-term repopulating HSC which could be kept in culture for prolonged time; and insufficient knowledge of the selection process which generates mature T cells from CD4 CD8 double positive (DP) precursors in vitro.