IMR Press / FBL / Volume 16 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/3724

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Signalling to cancer cell invasion through PAK family kinases
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1 Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, London
2 Division of Cancer Studies, King's College London
Academic Editors:Wen G Jiang, Richard Ablin
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2011, 16(3), 849–864;
Published: 1 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone metastasis, the molecular, cellular and clinical prospects)

Cancer cell metastasis involves a series of changes in cell behaviour, driven by oncogenic transformation, that leads to local tissue invasion, migration through extracellular matrix, entry into the vascular or lymphatic system and colonisation of distant sites. It is well established that the Rho family GTPases Rho, Rac and Cdc42 orchestrate many of the processes required during metastasis. The Rho family GTPases regulate cellular behaviour through their interaction with downstream effector proteins. The p-21 activated kinases (PAKs), effector proteins for Rac and Cdc42, are known to be important regulators of cell migration and invasion. There are six mammalian PAKs which can be divided into two groups: group I PAKs (PAK1-3) and group II PAKs (PAK4-6). Although the two PAK groups are architecturally similar there are differences in their mode of regulation suggesting their cellular functions are likely to be different. This review will focus on the latest evidence relating to the role of PAK family kinases in the cell signalling pathways that drive cancer cell migration and invasion.

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