IMR Press / FBL / Volume 14 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/3271

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Recent progress in research on beta-cell apoptosis by cytokines
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1 Department of Medicine, Dongguk University International Hospital, Dongguk University School of Medicine, Goyang, Korea
2 Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Academic Editor:Myung-Shik Lee
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2009, 14(2), 657–664;
Published: 1 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent progress in signal transduction of islet beta cells)

Pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. As death effector molecules, perforin, Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, Interleukin (IL)-1, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and nitric oxide have been claimed. Recently, combinations or synergisms between IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha or IL-1beta are being revisited as the death effectors, and signal transduction of such synergisms has been explored to find molecular mechanism of beta -cell death. Among the regulators of apoptosis, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has emerged as a master switch of cytokine-induced beta -cell dysfunction and death. By employing TNF-alpha / IFN-gamma synergism model which causes beta -cell apoptosis, we found that the antiapoptotic X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) molecule is upregulated by NF-kappaB in response to TNF-alpha and XIAP induction was inhibited by IFN-gamma-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) activation, which explains the death of beta -cells by TNF-alpha /IFN-gamma synergism.

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