IMR Press / FBL / Volume 14 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/3234

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Diversity of the FcR- and KIR-related genes in an amphibian Xenopus
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1 Laboratory of Immunogenetics, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Box 672, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Academic Editor:Jacques Robert
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2009, 14(1), 130–140; https://doi.org/10.2741/3234
Published: 1 January 2009
Abstract

Receptors subdivided into inhibitory and activating forms play important roles in the regulation of leukocyte development and effector functions. Two prototypic examples of paired receptors are Fc-receptors (FcR) and Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). FcRs are cell surface proteins that bind to the constant regions of IgG and IgE. Classical KIRs recognize MHC class I molecules and regulate natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic functions. The evolution of these proteins and the time of their origin remain enigmatic. So far, molecules unequivocally related to mammalian FcRs and KIRs have been identified in chicken and an amphibian Xenopus. The lineage-specific evolution of the FcR and KIR families apparently led to the generation of unique sets of receptors in all species studied. Members of both families show extraordinary diversity of domain architectures. This structural diversity makes elusive the functional relationships between the highly specialized mammalian FcR and KIR genes and their homologs in nonmammalian species.

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