IMR Press / FBL / Volume 13 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.2741/2860

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
HIV's double strike at the brain: neuronal toxicity and compromised neurogenesis
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1 Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Academic Editor:Francesca Peruzzi
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2008, 13(7), 2484–2494;
Published: 1 January 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular basis of neuronal dysfunction in AIDS)

Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are often associated with severe and debilitating neurological problems that include behavioral abnormalities, motor dysfunction and frank dementia. HIV-1-infected peripheral immune cells, in particular macrophages, appear to infiltrate the CNS, release neurotoxins and provoke a neuropathological response involving all cell types in the brain. In the CNS, HIV-1 and its components initiate activation of chemokine receptors, inflammatory mediators and glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity, all of which can activate numerous downstream signaling pathways and disturb neuronal and glial function. Recent experimental evidence suggests that disturbance by HIV-1 results not only in neuronal injury and death but also in impairment of neurogenesis. This article will review recently identified pathological mechanisms which potentially contribute to the development of neurocognitive impairment and dementia in association with HIV-1 infection.

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