Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
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Neutrophils are the first to be recruited to a site of infection or a diseased site. Among various inflammatory mediators, CXC chemokines including IL-8 (CXCL8), MIP-2 (CXCL2), and KC (CXCL1) are the most critical for such recruitment. Neutrophils have been considered as effector cells that kill bacteria or destroy affected tissues mainly through the production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies, however, revealed that neutrophils are involved in the production of chemokines in response to a variety of stimulants including LPS, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, thereby contributing to immunomodulation. These functions are also regulated by selectins during infiltration into various sites. In this review, I summarize the current knowledge on this area and propose that neutrophils are a fascinating target for basic as well as clinical scientists.