Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
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Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Zhou
Human cancer cytogenetics is the study of chromosomal rearrangements and numerical abnormalities in malignant tissue. Since the 1960s and the discovery of the Philadelphia chromosome, hundreds of common and characteristic chromosomal aberrations have been observed in various neoplasias. Because these cytogenetic aberrations provide diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment-related information for the associated cancers, they are considered biomarkers for disease. Here we describe many of the best-known chromosome rearrangements and variant rearrangements in hematologic disease and solid tumors, indicate the genes and underlying molecular mechanisms known to be involved in development and progression of disease, and describe the newer molecular cytogenetic technologies and how they are currently being used in cancer diagnostics. We also highlight many important pit-falls in obtaining, transporting, and analyzing neoplastic samples which can compromise cytogenetic studies and preclude its use as a diagnostic tool.