IMR Press / FBL / Volume 13 / Issue 15 / DOI: 10.2741/3114

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Toll-like receptor signaling in the ischemic heart
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1 Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Herzkreislauf-Zentrum, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Chuanfu Li

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2008, 13(15), 5772–5779;
Published: 1 May 2008

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified as primary innate immune receptors. They distinguish among different patterns of pathogens and rapidly activate an innate immune response. However, TLRs can also be stimulated by host-derived molecules. TLRs are expressed in the cardiovascular system and could thus be a key link between cardiovascular diseases and the immune system. Increasing evidence suggests that TLR signaling promotes injury in the heart after ischemia, ischemia/reperfusion or hypertrophic stimuli. Herein we review the experimental and clinical evidence for the involvement of TLR and its downstream signaling molecules in cardiac ischemic injury.

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