Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding is the first step of gamete interaction. This binding occurs in two sequential steps, starting with the primary binding of acrosome-intact sperm to the ZP followed by the secondary ZP binding of acrosome reacting/reacted sperm. While there are only a few ZP sulfoglycoproteins involved in these binding events, a large number of sperm surface molecules have been shown to possess ZP affinity. In this review, we have given explanations to the existence of these many ZP binding molecules. We have also summarized their origin and the mechanisms of how they are targeted to the sperm surface and acrosome. Recently, we have shown that sperm lipid rafts have affinity for the ZP. A number of ZP binding molecules are also present in sperm lipid rafts. In this review, we have provided an argument that sperm lipid rafts may be the platforms on the sperm surface for ZP interaction.