Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Academic Editor: George Blanck
The majority of human and rodent cancers display various antigens which could elicit cellular and humoral immune responses. Such immunity, however, often fails to prevent progressive growth of cancers. It has long been speculated that tumor antigens may not be presented in appropriate fashion, which subsequently fails to elicit a strong immune response. Recent studies, however, indicate that immunization by formulated tumor antigens or even transfer of pre-activated T lymphocytes also have limited impact on cancer growth despite the fact that these methods could often enhance immune responses in cancer patients. These findings imply that even afferent arm of immunity are strengthen, it is not necessarily being translated to tumor regression. It is possible that the development of evasion mechanisms in tumor microenvironment play a critical role in the resistance of therapeutic immune responses. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that human and rodent cancers develop evasion mechanisms by aberrantly expressing normal proteins, which are required for normal tissue homeostasis, to either build a microenvironment locally or reach other organs systemically. In this review, we will focus our discussion on two recently described molecules, B7-H1 and B7-H4, in the context of their roles in the evasion of tumor immunity and possible approaches for therapeutic manipulation.