IMR Press / FBL / Volume 10 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/1719

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Advances in understanding adenosine as a plurisystem modulator in sepsis and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)
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1 Department of Physhiology and Biophysics, University of Illinois at Chicago, and Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA

Academic Editor: Avadhesh Sharma

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2005, 10(3), 2548–2565; https://doi.org/10.2741/1719
Published: 1 September 2005
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in systemic inflammatory response)
Abstract

Adenosine is a ubiquitous molecule that influences every physiological system studied thus far. In this review, we consider the influence of this purine nucleoside on some of the physiological systems affected during sepsis and SIRS. In the control of perfusion and cardiac output distribution, endogenous adenosine appears to play an important role in regulating perfusion in various vascular beds. Some of this control is mediated by stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, while part occurs by stimulating the production of nitric oxide. In the heart, adenosine may act as an inhibitory modulator of TNF-alpha expression. With regard to innate immune responses the effects of adenosine vary considerably, and are complex. However, the dominant responses relevant to SIRS indicate attenuation of inflammatory responses. Many of the effects of adenosine may also involve modulating oxyradical-mediated response. This occurs via increased oxyradical production via adenosine degradation (xanthine oxidase pathway), or limiting inflammatory oxyradical generation. Attempts to exploit the beneficial responses to adenosine have met with some success, and are considered here.

Keywords
Sepsis
Infection
Inflammation
Cytokine
TNF
Tumor necrosis factor
Adenosine
pentostatin
adenosine deaminase
blood flow
perfusion
nitric oxide
vasodilation
Review
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