IMR Press / FBE / Volume 7 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/E742

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Ambient Environmental risk factors for childhood wheezing illness
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1 Child Health Department, University of Ioannina, Medical School, Ioannina, Grrece
2 Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, Department of Geography and Climatology, Faculty and Geology & Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15784, Athens, Greece
3 Paediatric Allergy and Respiratory Unit, Third Department of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens University General Hospital «Attikon», Athens, Greece

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2015, 7(3), 447–468;
Published: 1 June 2015

It is a great consensus in the scientific community that environmental factors, such as weather conditions and ambient air pollution, have vital impacts on respiratory diseases. Further, these factors imply the potential to have many significant impacts on aeroallergens, and therefore related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. The impacts are more pronounced in sensitive groups of population, such as children and elderly, living in urbanized areas. Over the last three decades, studies have shown changes in production, dispersion and allergen content of pollen and spores, which may be region- and species-specific. In addition, these changes may have been influenced by air pollutants interacting directly with pollen. It is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate change and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in general and on the timing of asthma exacerbations. However, the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity suggests that air pollution and climate changes could be contributing. The objective of this review is to summarize the environmental impacts on pulmonary diseases in children based on recent literature over the world.

Weather impacts
Ambient air pollution
Wheezing illness
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