IMR Press / FBE / Volume 5 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/E681

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Cell development obeys maximum fisher information

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1 College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721
2 Departments of Radiology and Integrated Mathematical Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2013, 5(3), 1017–1032;
Published: 1 June 2013

Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micrometer and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micrometer. The NM contains approximately 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC. Therefore the first-order change in I = 0. But also, the 2nd-order change in I is likewise close to zero, indicating significant stability to environmental perturbations. Many predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4 nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F approximately 1016 proteins/m2 -s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKLIDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. It is also shown that such maximum information → a cell state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, one condition for life.

Emergent Life
Protein Flux
Maximum Fisher Information
Kullback-Liebler Entropy
SecondOrder Stability
Individually Charged NPCS
Maximum Order
Minimum Entropy
Stability To Perturbation
Time Gating
Prescribed Information
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