IMR Press / FBE / Volume 5 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/E642

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Two-photon polymerization microstructuring in regenerative medicine

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1 Nanotechnology Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover eV, Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover, Germany
2 Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7115, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2013, 5(2), 602–609;
Published: 1 January 2013

Two-photon polymerization has developed as a powerful tool for making micro- and nanoscale structures for regenerative medicine applications. This review discusses micro- and nanoscale aspects of tissue engineering, which are followed by a brief description of the two-photon polymerization process and how it has been used thus far in tissue engineering and other regenerative medicine applications. Lastly, potential future applications of two-photon polymerization in regenerative medicine are presented. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the uses of two-photon polymerization thus far in regenerative medicine and a look into how this technique will be used in the future.

Tissue engineering
Regenerative Medicine
Rapid Prototyping
Medical Devices
Two-Photon Polymerization
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