IMR Press / FBE / Volume 4 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.2741/E575

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Role of obesity, alcohol and smoking on bone health

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1 Laboratory of Preclinical and Surgical Studies-Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy
2 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
3 Department of Medical Science, Dentistry, and Biophysics, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
4 Department of Reproduction and Ageing, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2012, 4(7), 2586–2606;
Published: 1 June 2012

The burden of osteoporosis is increasing in all societies. In comparison with other organs or apparatuses fewer studies have focused on incorrect lifestyles and bone. This article reviews clinical and experimental studies on the effects of obesity, alcohol abuse and smoking on bone. Overweight and obesity protect bone, thus reducing the fracture risk and the development of osteoporosis in older adults. However, extreme obesity (body mass index > 40 kg/m2) seems to be a risk factor for osteoporosis. Moderate alcohol consumption may have a protective effect, whereas excessive consumption is an important risk factor. Cytokines are the main mediators of the detrimental effects of obesity and alcohol. Smoking contributes to bone loss and fracture probably by interfering with estrogens, calcium and vitamin D. Health information campaigns against these harmful lifestyles should be strengthened by using available scientific information to increase awareness about their consequences on the bone.

Bone Density
Alcohol-Related Disorders
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