IMR Press / FBE / Volume 4 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/e477

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Tissue factor: mechanisms of decryption

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1 Center for Biomedical Research, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, Texas

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: L. Vijaya Mohan Rao

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2012, 4(4), 1513–1527;
Published: 1 January 2012

It is generally believed that only a small fraction of the tissue factor (TF) found on cell surfaces is active whereas the vast majority is cryptic in coagulation. It is unclear how cryptic TF differs from the coagulant active TF or potential mechanisms involved in transformation of cryptic TF to the coagulant active form. Exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) in response to various chemical or pathophysiological stimuli has been considered as the most potent inducer of TF decryption. In addition to PS, TF self-association and association with specialized membrane domains may also play a role in TF decryption. It has been suggested recently that protein disulfide isomerase regulates TF decryption through its oxidoreductase activity by targeting Cys186-Cys209 disulfide bond in TF extracellular domain or regulating the PS equilibrium at the plasma membrane. However, this hypothesis requires further validation to become an accepted mechanism. In this article, we critically review literature on TF encryption/decryption with specific emphasis on recently published data and provide our perspective on this subject.

factor VIIa
Protein Disulfide Isomerase
Tissue Factor
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