IMR Press / FBE / Volume 4 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/e468

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Alternative hypothesis for the origin of osteoporosis: The role of Mn

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1 IREC Sec Albacete, IDR, UCLM, Albacete, Spain
2 Instituto de Desarrollo Regional (IDR), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Albacete, Spain
3 ETSIA, UCLM, 02071 Albacete, Spain
4 Hospital de Hellin, Hellin, Albacete, Spain

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Chunyi Li

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2012, 4(4), 1385–1390;
Published: 1 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deer antler: a unique model for full mammalian organ regeneration)

Antlers represent an ideal experimental model for bone biology studies, because of their easy accessibility, and their rapid growth. Findings from our previous studies revealed that Mn plays an essential role in incorporating the circulating bone Ca to the growing antlers. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that Mn, an essential mineral for Ca fixation (or incorporation) into bones, might be released from bone, during its remodeling, to be available for prioritized function, most likely, brain function; Consequently, Ca incorporation will be dramatically affected, leading to osteoporosis, particularly in elderly people. Therefore, osteoporosis would precede brain malfunctioning diseases such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s, and clinical data are available to support some of the predictions derived from this hypothesis.

Bone Mechanical Properties
Mineral Composition
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