IMR Press / FBE / Volume 4 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/e444

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Oncology biomarkers for gynecologic malignancies

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1 Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Health System
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Research on Reproduction and Women’s Health, Penn Ovarian Cancer Research Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Ronny Drapkin

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2012, 4(3), 1097–1110; https://doi.org/10.2741/e444
Published: 1 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in gynecologic malignancies)
Abstract

Current therapies efficiently treat most patients with gynecologic malignancies detected at an early stage. Thus, the identification of oncology biomarkers for screening and monitoring of occult tumors has been highly prioritized. Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) epitomizes oncologic biomarker, as the serum level of this hormone is elevated in virtually all cases of gestational trophoblastic diseases. On the other hand, despite the availability of various markers such as CA125, CA19.9, CA15.3, CA72-4, Inhibin, beta-hCG, AFP, CEA and many more biomarkers under investigation, fewer than 25% of all ovarian cancers are currently detected in stage I. Large efforts have been undertaken to further identify composite markers for gynecologic malignancies that may exhibit greater specificity when studied over time, as well as to develop risk models and screening algorithms aimed at improving the specificity and sensitivity of diagnostic tests. In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the biomarkers currently used in clinics for gynecologic malignancies, as well as an outlook of the most promising oncologic biomarkers currently under study.

Keywords
Oncology Biomarkers
Gynecologic Malignancies
Early Detection
Disease Monitoring
CA125
hCG
HE4
Mesothelin
KLK
CEA
Review
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