IMR Press / FBE / Volume 3 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/E303

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Sevoflurane preconditioning protects blood-brain-barrier against brain ischemia
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1 Department of Anesthesiology of Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, and Institute of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
2 Department of Neurology and Center of Cerebrovascular Disease Research, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Feng Zhang

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2011, 3(3), 978–988; https://doi.org/10.2741/E303
Published: 1 June 2011
Abstract

Sevoflurane preconditioning has recently been demonstrated to protect ischemic brain in vivo and in vitro. However, mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection have not been delineated. We therefore assessed the hypothesis that sevoflurane pretreatment protected blood-brain-barrier (BBB) via suppression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) after ischemia. Repeated sevoflurane preconditioning was administered 24 hours before transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neurologic deficits and expression of CAMs, MMPs and occludin were examined up to 3 days after ischemia. Evans blue (EB) extravasation and electron microscopy was detected at 2 days after ischemia. The data showed that sevoflurane pretreatment markedly improved BBB integrity and neurological outcomes after ischemia, robustly suppressed ischemia-induced decreases of occludin and increases of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). Sevoflurane pretreatment also suppressed the activation of astrocytes and microglias in ipsilateral cortex and corpus callosum. In conclusion, repeated sevoflurane preconditioning confered potent protection against brain ischemia, partly by improving BBB integrity.

Keywords
Cerebral Ischemia
Volatile Anesthetic Preconditioning
Sevoflurane
Neuroprotection
BloodBrain-Barrier
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Cell Adhesion Molecules
Tight-Junctions
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