Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex autoimmune disorder. The cornerstones of the pathogenesis are vascular damage, fibrogenesis and various cellular and humoral autoimmune processes. The aim of the present review is to describe pathogenic steps, leading to the hallmark clinical picture of SSc. Indeed, numerous therapeutical approaches have been tested/are in use, directed towards vascular damage, fibrogenesis, as well as autoimmune processes in order to decelerate the progression of the disease. These therapies are also discussed in the review. Finally, we described certain novel immune-modulating possibilities, namely autologous stem-cell transplantation and extracorporeal photochemotherapy.