IMR Press / FBE / Volume 15 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbe1501002
Open Access Review
Targeting Glutamine Metabolism in Prostate Cancer
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1 Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
2 Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
3 Department of Surgery, Division of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, Biomedical Sciences, and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
*Correspondence: (Jun Gong)
Academic Editor: Samuela Cataldi
Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2023, 15(1), 2;
Submitted: 17 March 2022 | Revised: 25 June 2022 | Accepted: 5 July 2022 | Published: 4 January 2023
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid important for cancer cell proliferation through intermediary metabolism leading to de novo synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, hexosamine biosytnehsis, fatty acid synthesis through reductive carboxylation, maintenance of redox homeostasis, glutathione synthesis, production of non-essential amino acids, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Prostate cancer has increasingly been characterized as a tumor type that is heavily dependent on glutamine for growth and survival. In this review, we highlight the preclinical evidence that supports a relationship between glutamine signaling and prostate cancer progression. We focus on the regulation of glutamine metabolism in prostate cancer through key pathways involving the androgen receptor pathway, MYC, and the PTEN/PI3K/mTOR pathway. We end with a discussion on considerations for translation of targeting glutamine metabolism as a therapeutic strategy to manage prostate cancer. Here, it is important to understand that the tumor microenvironment also plays a role in facilitating glutamine signaling and resultant prostate cancer growth. The druggability of prostate cancer glutamine metabolism is more readily achievable with our greater understanding of tumor metabolism and the advent of selective glutaminase inhibitors that have proven safe and tolerable in early-phase clinical trials.

prostate cancer
androgen receptor
W81XWH-19-1-0388/Department of Defense
W81XWH-19-1-0406/Department of Defense
CA233452/National Cancer Institute
BX001040/US Department of Veterans Affairs
Fig. 1.
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