IMR Press / FBE / Volume 14 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbe1402008
Open Access Review
The Association of Inflammatory Gut Diseases with Neuroinflammatory and Auditory Disorders
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1 Department of Physiology and The Eisdell Moore Centre, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 1142 Auckland, New Zealand
*Correspondence: s.vlajkovic@auckland.ac.nz (Srdjan M. Vlajkovic)
Academic Editor: Arthur J. Chu
Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2022, 14(2), 008; https://doi.org/10.31083/j.fbe1402008
Submitted: 21 December 2021 | Revised: 11 February 2022 | Accepted: 24 February 2022 | Published: 22 March 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Abstract

Disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease (CeD) result in intestinal hyperpermeability or ‘leaky’ gut. The increased permeability of the intestinal barrier allows microbial metabolites, toxins, and pathogens to infiltrate the bloodstream and extraintestinal tissues, causing systemic inflammation. Despite differences in aetiology and pathophysiology, IBD and CeD share several extraintestinal manifestations such as neuroinflammation, neurological and psychiatric manifestations, and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). This narrative review focuses on the association between intestinal hyperpermeability with the brain and inner ear diseases. We postulate that the microbial metabolites and pathogens released from the gut increase the permeability of natural barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB). The barrier breakdown allows the spreading of inflammatory processes to the brain and inner ear, leading to disease.

Keywords
inflammatory bowel disease
celiac disease
gut dysbiosis
microbiota
neuroinflammation
hearing loss
Figures
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