IMR Press / EJGO / Volume 43 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.ejgo4302041
Open Access Review
Management of malignant dysgerminoma of the ovary
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1 Department of Gynecology, Competence Center for Ovarian Cancer (EKZE), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, 13353 Berlin, Germany
2 Young Academy of Gynecologic Oncology (JAGO) Outreach programme, 13353 Berlin, Germany
3 Institute of Pathology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, 13353 Berlin, Germany
4 Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, 13353 Berlin, Germany.
5 Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC) of the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13353 Berlin, Germany
6 Berliner Institut für Gesundheitsforschung (BIH), 13353 Berlin, Germany
7 Department of Pediatric Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, 13353 Berlin, Germany
8 Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Bonn, 53113 Bonn, Germany
9 Department of Gynecology, Competence Center for Ovarian Cancer (EKZE), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, 13353 Berlin, Germany
*Correspondence: tjadina.arndt@charite.de (Tjadina Arndt)
Academic Editor: Enrique Hernandez
Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol. 2022, 43(2), 353–362; https://doi.org/10.31083/j.ejgo4302041
Submitted: 29 January 2022 | Revised: 8 March 2022 | Accepted: 9 March 2022 | Published: 15 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis in Gynaecological Oncology)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Abstract

The evolution of treatment for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors has been one of the most successful in the history of gynecologic oncology, with dysgerminoma as the most common type of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. Since the introduction of platinum-based chemotherapy in the 1980s, 5-year survival rates for early-stage dysgerminomas have been close to 100%, and as high as 98% for advanced stages. Despite this remarkable achievement, many questions remain in routine treatment. By performing a literature review, we aim to highlight both the current treatment of malignant dysgerminoma and unanswered questions in the modern management of this disease. These issues relate firstly to surgical therapy, such as the role of routine omentectomy and lymphadenectomy, the value of complete surgical resection, and the possibility of fertility-sparing surgery. Second, chemotherapy and the question of the possibility of de-escalation in early stages and the potential of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stages will be addressed. Finally, a brief overview of the current developments of new drug treatment regimens will be given.

Keywords
non epithelial ovarian cancer
ovarian germ cell tumor
dysgerminoma
surgery
chemotherapy
targeted therapies
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