IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 49 / Issue 9 / DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog4909203
Open Access Original Research
Association between Pelvic Floor Dysfunction and Pelvic Floor Ultrasonography Evaluation in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study
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1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34104 Istanbul, Turkey
*Correspondence: (Inci Sema Tas)
Academic Editor: Andrei Mihai Măluțan
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2022, 49(9), 203;
Submitted: 25 April 2022 | Revised: 29 June 2022 | Accepted: 29 June 2022 | Published: 1 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Ultrasound for Gynecological Diseases)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Pelvic floor dysfunctions (PFDs) are commonly encountered in pregnancy, which may include urinary and fecal incontinence, pelvic pain, sexual dysfunction and pelvic organ prolapse. Identifying these problems and their risk factors in pregnancy is crucial for prevention and management. The primary outcome of this study is to investigate the relationship between the PFD symptoms in pregnant women and perineal ultrasonography measurements. Secondary outcomes are to figure out the risk factors for PFDs in pregnancy and also to identify the relationship between these risk factors with transperineal ultrasonography measurements and pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS). Methods: 49 pregnant women recruited in the study, were asked to fill questionnaires, underwent transperineal ultrasonography and pelvic floor muscle strength examination. Results: The hiatal area at rest, pelvic contraction and Valsalva are positively correlated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (p = 0.018, p = 0.003 and p = 0.006 respectively), pelvic organ prolapse (POP) (p = 0.015, p = 0.022 and p = 0.011 respectively) and sexual dysfunction (SD) (p = 0.033, p = 0.041 and p = 0.023 respectively). Hiatal area at Valsalva and detrusor muscle thickness are positively correlated with urge urinary incontinence (UUI) (p = 0.021 and p = 0.012). The hiatal area value at pelvic contraction and Valsalva are positively correlated with feacal/flatal incontinence (FFI) (p = 0.024 and p = 0.037). Hiatal areas at rest, pelvic contraction, Valsalva and detrussor muscle thickness are correleated with age (r = 0.287, r = 0.335, r = 0.315 and r = 0.421 respectively), body mass index (r = 0.380, r = 0.420, r = 0.415 and r = 0.447 respectively) and pelvic floor muscle strength (r = –0.539, r = –0.583, r = –0.550 and r = –0.545 respectively). Bladder neck descent is correlated with body mass index (r = 0.284). Conclusions: Transperineal ultrasound measurements of Detrusor muscle thickness, hiatal area (HA) at rest, pelvic contraction and Valsalva Manoeuvre are found to be associated with PFDs in pregnant women. Risk factors for PFDs in pregnancy are body mass index, age, gestational week, parity, birth weight and delivery method.

fecal incontinence
pelvic floor dysfunction
pelvic floor disorders
pelvic floor ultrasonography
pelvic organ prolapse
translabial ultrasonography
transperineal ultrasonography
sexual dysfunction
urinary incontinence
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