IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 48 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog.2021.03.2435
Open Access Original Research
Level of depression and hopelessness among women with infertility during the outbreak of COVID-19: a cross-sectional investigation
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1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Amasya University Sabuncuoglu Serefeddin Training and Research Hospital, 05100 Amasya, Turkey
2 Clinics of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Turhal State Hospital, 60300 Tokat, Turkey
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, 67100 Zonguldak, Turkey
4 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, IVF Unit, Medicana International Hospital, 06520 Samsun, Turkey
5 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, “Verisdelli Ponti” Hospital, Scorrano, 73100 Lecce, Italy
6 PhystechBioMed School, Faculty of Biological & Medical Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, 141701 Moscow Region, Russia
*Correspondence: (Andrea Tinelli)
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2021, 48(3), 594–600;
Submitted: 25 December 2020 | Revised: 28 January 2021 | Accepted: 8 February 2021 | Published: 15 June 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak negatively impacted on the mental wellbeing of infertile couples, because of the World Health Organization’s recommendation to stop all fertility treatments. This study aims to investigate the level of depression and hopelessness during the COVID-19 outbreak, in women with primary and secondary infertility. Methods: A 16-item online questionnaire was applied to a total of 220 women with primary and secondary infertility in June 2020. Participants’ knowledge and concerns about COVID-19 pandemic stop of treatments and follow-up preferences were evaluated. In addition, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) were adapted to Turkish and applied to each participant. Total scores of inventories between women were calculated. The correlation between depression and hopelessness levels of the groups was evaluated. Results: The BDI and BHS mean scores of 220 infertile women who completed our questionnaire were 14.63 ± 9.123 and 5.43 ± 5.026 and Cronbach’s α-values were 0.853 and 0.904, respectively. It was found that 142 women with secondary infertility had higher mean depression and hopelessness scores (15.92 ± 9.758, 11.81 ± 6.501; P = 0.001) VS 78 women with primary infertility (6.51 ± 5.262, 3.78 ± 3.670; P = 0.000). A strong positive correlation was detected between depression and hopelessness levels for each group (r = 0.625, P = 0.000 and r = 0.740, P = 0.000). Conclusions: Total depression and hopelessness scores of both groups were in a strong positive correlation with primary and secondary infertility during the COVID-19 outbreak. Particularly, women with secondary infertility had mild depression and low levels of hopelessness.

COVID-19 outbreak
Assisted reproductive technology
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