Background: Fetal growth restriction is associated with many adverse effects and increases the risk of perinatal mortality by more than ten-fold. Zinc, selenium, iron, and copper have important roles in cell proliferation, inflammation, and oxidative stress which possibly serve as the basis for development of fetal growth restriction. Objective: To compare serum zinc, selenium, iron, and copper plasma levels between normal pregnancies and pregnancies with fetal growth restriction. Materials and Methods: The present was a cross-sectional study conducted at Obstetrics Emergency Unit of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Jakarta from February until May 2017. Normal pregnant women and pregnant women with fetal growth restriction were recruited in this study. Maternal blood samples were taken before labor, and serum zinc, selenium, iron, and copper levels measurements were done. Results: Thirty normal pregnancies and 30 pregnancies with fetal growth restriction were enrolled in this study. Mean serum zinc, selenium, iron, and copper levels in normal pregnancy were 42.07 µg/dL, 69.80 µg/L, 70.50 µg/dL, and 2177 µg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, mean serum zinc, selenium, iron, and copper levels in pregnancy with fetal growth restriction were 43.53 µg/dL, 80.83 µg/L, 106 µg/dL, and 2,133.5 µg/L, respectively. There were significant differences in serum selenium concentrations (p = 0.013) and serum iron concentrations (p = 0.009) between the two groups. There were no significant differences in serum zinc and copper levels between both groups. Conclusion: Serum selenium and iron levels were higher in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction. Conclusion: The present study indicates the significant roles of micronutrients and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of fetal growth restriction.
Cite this article
Serum zinc, selenium, iron, and copper levels in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction
1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2019, 46(6), 892–896; https://doi.org/10.12891/ceog4744.2019
Published: 10 December 2019
Fetal growth restriction