IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 45 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.12891/ceog4626.2018

Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology (CEOG) is published by IMR Press from Volume 47 Issue 1 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with S.O.G.

Original Research
A technique variant for the use of the vacuum extractor with episiotomy to reduce maternal injuries
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1 Obstetric and Gynaecology Department, Santo Spirito Hospital ASL RM 1, Rome, Italy
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2018, 45(5), 713–719;
Published: 10 October 2018

Vulvovaginal tears during childbirth are a relevant factor of morbidity and are often more extensive in case of forceps or vacuum application. Although it is not routinely recommended, episiotomy is the primary mean to reduce the maternal lesion and is commonly used in case of operative delivery, also if sometimes is not able to avoid lacerations. Episiotomy technique as any procedure can be improved. This study suggests a new procedure that has been applied and can significantly reduce maternal vaginal tears during operative childbirth with vacuum extraction.
Operative vaginal delivery
Vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery
Vacuum extractor
Vulvovaginal tears
Vaginal birth
Perineal tear
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