IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 44 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.12891/ceog3365.2017

Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology (CEOG) is published by IMR Press from Volume 46 Issue 1 (2019). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with S.O.G.

Open Access Original Research
Clitoral keloids after female genital circumcision in early age
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1 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Nyala Sudan Turkey Training and Research Hospital, Nyala, Sudan
2 Department of Urology, Nyala Sudan Turkey Training and Research Hospital, Nyala, Sudan
3 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aliaga State Hospital, İzmir, Turkey
4 Department of Pathology, Nyala Sudan Turkey Training and Research Hospital, Nyala, Sudan
5 Gynecology and Obstetric Department, Osmaniye State Hospital, Osmaniye, Turkey
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2017, 44(4), 511–514;
Published: 10 August 2017
Though the number is on the increase throughout the world each day, an estimated 100 million females worldwide so far are known to have been subjected to genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation (FGM), which is also known as female circumcision (FC), is a lifethreatening practice that results in many long-lasting health complications in both women and children's lives, especially in underdeveloped regions where its practice is carried out under unhygienic conditions by people who lack medical knowledge even without using any anesthesia and equipment. Furthermore, this non-medical practice brings about a number of both immediate and later complications. In addition to causing sexually dysfunctional, the other immediate effects following the circumcision can be bleeding, infections. psychological shock, and not being able to pass urine. Other complications include repetitive infections of urinary tract, urinary genital tract fistula, pelvic pain, sexually dysfunctional, complications during delivery such as bleeding because of tears and cuts, and maternal and fatal morbidity in case of prolonged stages of labour, thus leading to an increase in mortalities. Despite the opposition of World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF and the efforts of many Civil Works Organisations, along with the legislations of the Governments for its eradication, circumcision is still continuing to be practised in Africa. In this article the authors aimed to present a case of a ten-year-old child who has a two-year history of type 3 circumcision and discuss the complications of female circumcision performed at early ages.
Female genital mutilation
Clitoral mass
Early age
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