IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 44 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.12891/ceog3295.2017

Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology (CEOG) is published by IMR Press from Volume 47 Issue 1 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with S.O.G.

Original Research
Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine profiles in fetal growth restriction
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1 Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
3 Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gulf University for Science and Technology, West Mishref, Kuwait
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2017, 44(1), 98–103;
Published: 10 February 2017

The purpose of this investigation was to measure cytokine production by maternal peripheral blood lymphocytes from women with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and from healthy pregnant women, and to investigate the relationship between cytokine profiles and IUGR. Thirty-six women with IUGR and 22 control healthy pregnant women with normal fetal growth were studied. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, IL-23) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13) produced by mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured by ELISA. Levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 were higher in normal pregnancy compared to IUGR, indicating an anti-inflammatory bias. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNFα, and IL-12 were significantly higher and levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 lower in IUGR with placental insufficiency than in IUGR without placental insufficiency, suggesting a stronger pro-inflammatory bias in IUGR with placental insufficiency. Ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines suggest a dominance of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The authors conclude that an increased pro-inflammatory cytokine bias is observed in IUGR compared to normal pregnancy, and an increased pro-inflammatory cytokine dominance is seen in IUGR with placental insufficiency compared to IUGR without placental insufficiency.
Fetal growth restriction
Pro-inflammatory cytokines
Anti-inflammatory cytokines
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