IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 43 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.12891/ceog2091.2016

Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology (CEOG) is published by IMR Press from Volume 46 Issue 1 (2019). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with S.O.G.

Open Access Original Research
Early fetal heart ultrasonography as additional indicator for chromosomopathies
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1 Clinical Center of Serbia, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Belgrade
2 Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Belgrade
3 Ultramedica Clinic, US Medical School, Belgrade
4 University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics "Narodni front", Belgrade
5 Institute of Pathology, Medical faculty University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2016, 43(2), 245–249;
Published: 10 April 2016

Objective: First trial of estimating values of scans of fetal heart structures (FHS) in first trimester of pregnancy, as more primary facts of possible chromosomopathies. Materials and Methods: The study included 2,643 fetuses that were examined in first trimester of pregnancy on Sono CT convex (C5-2MHz), endovaginal (ev 8-4MHz), and linear transducers (L12-5MHz) during a period of eight years. Fetal heart was evaluated using appropriate software with broad-band transducers and color Doppler, Sono CT, and HD ZOOM technologies. The scan was performed by three experienced physicians. FHS were based on: left and right ventricle morphology; AV valves (atrioventricular) position and existence of primal ostium; relationship of left ventricle outflow tract (LVOT) and right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) and great vessels on three vessel view (3VV) and estimation of ductal and aortic arch. Results: Several developments, one being the ability to identify fetuses at risk for cardiac defects combining nuchal translucency (NT), ductus venosus (DV) Doppler, and evaluation of tricuspid regurgitation, have prompted reconsideration of the role of the first trimester prognostic factor of fetal evaluation. In low-risk pregnancies group, 36 (1.8%) fetuses were found to have congenital heart disease (CHD), and in high-risk pregnancies the number of fetuses with CHD was 75 (12%). Genetic amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) was performed in all fetuses with CHD. Forty-two (37.8%) fetuses with CHD were found to have chromosomal anomalies. Out of 111 fetuses with CHD 39 (35.1%) had an nuchal translucency (NT) above three mm. Out of 42 fetuses with chromosomal anomalies and CHD, 29 (69%) had an increased NT. Conclusion: Using first trimester fetal echosonography constitutes a further step in the earlier recognition of chromosomopathies, even in low risk groups. Still further steps are necessary as all facts of good clinical practice. In order to offer further benefits during pregnancies, improvements in diagnostics are still required.
First trimester
Early diagnosis
Fetal echocardiography
Cardiac defects
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