IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 40 / Issue 1 / pii/1630388015556-883703362

Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology (CEOG) is published by IMR Press from Volume 46 Issue 1 (2019). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with S.O.G.

Open Access Editorial
The interrelationship of sleep, biologic clocks, neurotransmitters, gonadotropins and pubertal development
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1 The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School at Camden, Cooper Hospital/University Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility, Camden, NJ (USA)
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2013, 40(1), 7–14;
Published: 10 March 2013
Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the influence of sleep on early pre-pubertal and pubertal development and to explore the importance of circadian rhythms and gonadotropin secretion. Methods: Mechanisms of suppression and turning on of the hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator at different times in development are evaluated. Furthermore, the influence of neurotransmitters in controlling pubertal development is also considered. Results: By the end of the first year, certain genes are activated that cause marked sensitivity of the GnRH pulse generator to negative feedback of circulating sex steroid. Furthermore, a central nervous system mechanism contributes greatly to the juvenile pause. Biologic clocks help to turn on the gonadostat and loss of negative feedback to sex steroid. This occurs during the sleeping hours. Equally important is to neutralize the neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) which is the main central nervous system inhibitor. Conclusions: Pubertal development is a complex process requiring the activation of certain genes which activate biologic clocks. This results in the increased secretion of certain neurotransmitters, for example, leptin and kisspeptin, which are very important in awakening the GnRH pulse generator. Suppression of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is equally important.
Keywords
Biologic clocks
Sleep
Neurotransmitters
Gene activation
Gonadotropin releasing hormone
Pulse generator
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