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Effects of the association zidovudine plus ritonavir on the liver and kidneys of pregnant rats. Morphological and biochemical aspects
T.M. Pereira Fontes1,*, M.U. Nakamura1, R. Mattar1, R.S. Simoes2, A. Wagner1, A. Moreira de Carvalho3, S. Espiridiao4, L. Kulay Jr1
1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine (UNIF ESP- EPM), Sao Paulo (SP)
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo (SP)
3 Deptartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Jose do Rosdrio Vellano, Alfenas (MG)
4 Department of Obstetrics and Pediatrics, Foundation Medician of ABC (FUABC), Sao Paulo (SP) (Brazil)
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2011, 38(2), 126–130;
Published: 10 June 2011
Purpose: To evaluate biochemical and morphological effects on rats submitted to three different doses of the association zidovudine and ritonavir administered throughout pregnancy. Methods: Forty pregnant EPM-1 Wistar rats weighing about 200 g were randomly divided into the control group (Ctr = drug vehicle control, n = 10) and three experimental ones which were treated with an oral solution of zidovudine/ritonavir (Exp1 = 10/20 mg/kg bw, n= 10; Exp2 = 30/60 mg/kg bw, n = 10; Exp3 = 90/180 mg/kg bw, n = 10) from ‘day 0' up to the 20th day of pregnancy. At term (20th day) the rats were anesthetized. Blood and fetal and maternal organ samples (livers and kidneys) were taken for morphological and biochemical analyses. Results: Upon histological examinations fetal livers and kidneys appeared normal. In contrast the maternal samples revealed structural alterations. Maternal kidneys of the three experimental groups exhibited progressive and dose-dependent histological alterations; liver alterations were detected only in Exp3. Blood levels of AST and ALT were not significantly different from the control group but urea and creatinine levels were lower in groups Exp3 and Exp1. Conclusions: The administration of zidovudine plus ritonavir throughout rat pregnancy can cause morphological as well as functional changes in maternal kidneys.