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Intrauterine devices and extrauterine pregnancy. A literature review
C. Iavazzo1,*, N. Salakos2, 3, N. Vitoratos3, K. Bakalianou2, 3, E. Deligeoroglou3, H. Dalainas3, A. Kondi-Pafiti3, A. Malamitsi-Puchner3
1 Department of Gynecology - METAXA Cancer Hospital, Piraeus
2 Family Planning Unit, 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital, Athens
3 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital, Athens (Greece)
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2008, 35(2), 103–106;
Published: 10 June 2008
The incidence of ectopic pregnancy has been high over the last decades. Many risk factors are potential causes, among them IUDs use which might have a significant role. According to the current thinking, the use of IUD does not increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. However, IUDs are more effective in protecting from intrauterine rather than ectopic pregnancy. Our review focuses on current and past IUD use, duration of its use, type of IUD and the associated risk of ectopic pregnancy. Fertility after IUD removal regarding the incidence of ectopic pregnancy is also discussed. Conflicting results regarding the association of ectopic pregnancy risk with the use of intrauterine devices exist.